Navigation path

Establishment of Early Warning Systems around the Kursk, Kalinin and Balakovo NPPs in Russia and connection to the Rosenergoatom Crisis Center in Moscow

Establishment of Early Warning Systems around the Kursk, Kalinin and Balakovo NPPs in Russia and connection to the Rosenergoatom Crisis Center in Moscow


An assessment of needs for assistance in the area of Off-site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) for nuclear accidents in 14 Eastern and Central European countries was completed. The results of this assessment were evaluated by the OSEP Inter-Service Group of the European Commission. A number of projects were established on the basis of the priorities identified and the EC budgetary resources available in 1996. One of them was related to the off-site monitoring and early warning systems around selected nuclear sites in Russia.
The assistance under this project was aimed at enhancing the area monitoring and early warning capabilities in the emergency planning zones around operating NPPs in Russia, including data transfer to the Crisis Center which is maintained at the ROSENERGOATOM headquarters in Moscow. This project targeted the implementation of such systems in the emergency zones of the Kursk, Kalinin and Balakovo NPPs.
Project Aims
The objectives of the project consisted in:

  • Establishment of three local gamma monitoring systems in the vicinity of the Kursk, Kalinin, Balakovo NPPs, each consisting of 12 monitoring stations equipped with monitoring devices and communication links;
  • Establishment of a local data center at each site to collect data from the monitoring stations, store and process the data, generate warning messages and transfer the data to the Rosenergoatom Crisis Center in Moscow;
  • Establishment of two-way links between the monitoring stations and the respective local data center for transferring the measured data and for remote control and diagnostics of the monitoring stations;
  • Establishment and enhancement, if necessary, of the operability of the data transfer from the local data centers to the Crisis Center in Moscow using existing data links (ISKRA system);
  • Verification of the real time operability of the whole systems and its connection (data transfer) to the IRIS Computer which is maintained by the MINPRIRODY.

Specifically the scope of supply included:
(1) Provision (Design, procurement, supply, erection, testing) of 12 complete monitoring stations for each NPP site.
(2) Provision (Design, procurement, supply, erection, testing) of one local data center per NPP, including a two way data transfer between the local data center and monitoring stations (radio connections or other means), and including necessary connection with the telecommunication system to transfer the data to the Crisis center in Moscow (connection of the local data center with the ISKRA network on the site).
(3) Provision of software to control the systems, from interrogation of detectors to data transfer & processing to preparation of input to data links (ISKRA), including the provisions for automatic control and status monitoring of both monitoring stations and data center. The software control of the system had high reliability.
(4) Provision of services for the installation and putting onto operation of whole system, including the verification of the operability links with Crisis center in Moscow and with IRIS computer.
(5) Establishment of documentation for the technical systems (hard and software).
(6) Training of local users on the operation of specific equipment and the whole system.
(7) Establishment of initial maintenance practices, maintenance manuals, and supply of spare parts for western equipment for an estimated period of five years.
(8) Assist in activities of the Crisis center of ROSENERGOATOM in establishing the basis for data acquisition and
assist in reviewing any procedures or instruction that the Crisis center may have in that respect.
Project Results
The project was completed according to the requirements and following the Technical Specifications as follows:
(1) Technical Specifications for the Monitoring Stations
There are 12 monitoring stations per site. The location of specific stations was determined by the beneficiary which also provided the adequate site preparation for them (site, power supply, etc.). The contractors supplied the monitoring stations, installed them at the site which was basically prepared to its specifications and verified its operability.
A monitoring station is a self contained unit, to be installed in the open. It consisted of the detector function (unit), and the process and control function (unit).
The contractor provided the equipment below according to the technical specification:
(1.1) Detector Unit:
• Type of detector: Geiger Mueller.
• Sensitivity Range: 50 nSv/h to 1 Sv/h.
• Energy Range: 50 keV to 1.25 MeV.
• Energy dependence: 25% rel to Cs-137 within the above energy range.
• Operating temperature: - 40 to + 50 C.
• Temperature dependence (in the above operating temperature).

  • sensitivity: 2.5%.
  • stability of electronics: + 5%.
  • detector voltage: 1%.

• Accepted relative air humidity: 5 -98 %.
• Protective mode of casing: waterproof, weather proof.
• Life time: > 4 years.
• Long-term stability: 10% of the efficiency, the background and the energy range.

• Specification of the low-dose detector:

  • sensitivity range: 50 nSv/h to 2 mSv/h.
  • efficiency: > 1.000 cpm per micro Sv/h.
  • background < 40 cps (10%).
  • count rate at overload >300.000 cpm.

• Specification of the high-dose detector:

  • sensitivity range: 100 micro Sv/h to 1 Sv/h.
  • efficiency: > 1.5 cpm per micro Sv/h.
  • background < 1 cpm (10%).
  • count rate at overload >3.500.000 cpm.

(1.2) Processing and Control Unit:
• Microprocessor based processing and control unit.
• Temporary storage and integration of data from GM detectors (user's defined measuring cycles: 1 min. 10 min, 30 min., 1 hr, 2 hrs up to 24 hrs).
• Overall control and periodic testing of detectors and overall unit parameters.
• Evaluation of status and control inputs from detector unit.
• Providing for automatic periodic function test of power supply, modem function, battery, etc.
• Battery-power supply for GM detectors and for the operation of the unit (battery operation: 12 h minimum, useful life of the batteries: 3 years at normal cyclical loading).
• Support the data transfer (integrated data form detectors, unit condition information).
• Receipt of signals for change in integration parameters with local data center via radio.
• Data communication with Local data center (Radio modem or other).
(2) Technical Specifications of the Local Data Center
(2.1) Processing unit:
• PC, 32 Mb Ram, 1.2 Gb hard drive, keyboard mouse, 28000 BPS modem, with colour monitor (17"), printer and uninterruptable power supply.
• Software controlled functions as described above (data processing and integration, alarm initiation etc.).
• Storage of data for 1 year.
(2.2) Communication unit: Two way communication with monitoring units (Radio modem or other) Modem for communication with Crisis center in Moscow.
(2.3) Alarm unit: on-site visual and acoustic alarm (in the room with the processing unit, and one remote device in the radiation control room at the site).
(2.4) Application Software for Local Data Centers: To support all the above indicated functions with adequate reliability of operation in the whole spectrum of operating regimes and in particular in emergencies.
(3) Installation
All necessary installation equipment connections including cables were provided by the contractor. The cables, the detectors and the monitors were protected against lightning, or other electrical impacts.
The installation included initial testing to verify the operability of the whole system (including data transfer to the Rosenergoatom Crisis center and to IRIS computer). Enhancements of that link, including the receiving equipment in the Crisis center were specified.
(4) Documentation
Three copies of the full technical documentation (manuals) of the technical systems and description of the application software were provided in English and in Russian. The documentation included a general description of the systems as well as detailed information on:
Electrical wiring of the systems; calibration of the detectors; main procedures for tuning, testing and operation of the system; maintenance procedures and replacement procedures.
(5) Training
The contractor provided training for the operation of the system (equipment and software) as part of the installation procedure and system acceptance test.
(6) Maintenance and spare parts
The contractor developed the maintenance manuals needed for maintenance of all equipment (including locally supplied equipment) proposed the maintenance strategy and the specification for the spare parts supply for the Western equipment, including the storage specifications.
The supplies included procurement and delivery of spare parts for approximately 5 years period after the expiry of the warranty on the equipment.

General Information

Establishment of Early Warning Systems around the Kursk, Kalinin and Balakovo NPPs in Russia and connection to the Rosenergoatom Crisis Center in Moscow
€ 532.240,57
Budget year: 
Types of activities: 
Equipment Supply
DS - Design safety (incl. Off-Site Emergency Preparedness)
Duration (months): 
Contracting authority: 
European Commission (default)
Partner (Beneficiary): 
MINATOM RF, later ROSATOM (since 12/2007)
Old reference: 
ITALTREND-5455 (contract PA)
Project reference: 
TA REG 02/2
Decision number: 
multi annual
Method of procurement: 
Special Fund (Procurement Agent)
Procurement Agent contract: 
ITALTREND-5455 (contract PA)
Procurement Agent reference: 
NSP-001-REA-001/95 MINATOM
Procurement Agent provisional acceptance: 
Procurement Agent Final acceptance: 
Signature date: 
Effective contract date: 
Contract end date: 
Closure date: