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Technical Assessment of the Phare Nuclear Safety Programme in Bulgaria

Technical Assessment of the Phare Nuclear Safety Programme in Bulgaria


The specific objectives of the project were to Assess the degree of success achieved by the PHARE funded projects in the safety improvement of the Kozloduy NPP (KNPP)
The following significant benefits were recognised :
Projects funded by PHARE have assisted in the development of the Regulatory Body (BNSA) from a small ineffective regulatory organisation, with little experience in acting as a true Regulator, into an organisation which now exhibits the approach and intent of a Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This has happened as a result of the very close involvement of European Regulatory Bodies with BNSA, and the training and development of the Regulatory attitude which this has engendered. This change in attitude of the Regulatory body has influenced the safety culture throughout the industry and is a major benefit to the nuclear industry in Bulgaria.

  • The early studies carried out as part of the WANO 6-month programme, provided confidence in the original design studies for the WWER 440/230 design by obtaining confirmation of existing analyses using internationally recognised methods. This conclusion, and the results of the analysis is of benefit to all WWER 440/230 units. This has removed some of the prejudice against the design which was brought about by the original lack of knowledge of the technical behaviour of the system.
  • The short term improvement in the operational status of essential plant at Kozloduy was achieved by the actions of the initial technical assistance teams. This enabled the plants to continue to operate at a very difficult period in the transitional history of Bulgaria, when skills and resources were in very short supply.
  • The various activities involving training of staff at Kozloduy NPP have assisted in improving the level of safety culture at the site. Involvement with the Technical Assistance teams, links with and visits to Western NPP within the Twinning Programme, and simulator training at Novovoronesh have all given a higher profile to safety at Kozloduy.
  • Equipment supply contracts were directed to improvement or restoration of safety important systems (reactor core monitoring, primary temperature control, emergency DGs., etc.). The contracts have definitely been successful in improving plant safety and were highly appreciated by the plant management. In particular the provision of key monitoring and radiation protection equipment has provided an improvement in the physical state of the plant, and the ability to operate in a better controlled manner with improved control of radiation exposure. These and other equipment supply contracts also contribute to the improved level of safety culture.
  • Many of the design and operational issues identified by IAEA in 1991 and subsequently have either been resolved or significantly reduced in significance as a result of the combination of the PHARE Nuclear Safety Programme and local Bulgarian efforts. The Programme has also enabled Western experts to visit Bulgaria to observe the safety improvements. This has improved the knowledge in the Western world of the good safety performance of Kozloduy NPP.

Furthermore examples in contract types were analysed to (Studies, Technical Assistance and
Equipment Supply) identify strength and weaknesses. Finally recommendations on actions and establishment of priorities for the cost-efficient implementation of future PHARE projects was done.

General Information

Technical Assessment of the Phare Nuclear Safety Programme in Bulgaria
Budget year: 
Installation types: 
VVER-440/230 + 1000
Duration (months): 
ENCO - Enconet
Old reference: 
BG 9311-03-02
Effective contract date: 
Closure date: